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Sorry, "You can't" might be a little strong. If you give up on using the electro-mechanical timing and synchronizing system built into the machine out of simple cams and switches, and replace all that with a computer of some kind, you can of course make it do whatever you want. In my opinion that's unnecessary, and unnecessary computers should be avoided in things that I need to rely on for a long time.
You can't, the time is fixed because the indexing motor runs a certain speed and it runs constantly until the basket drops into the next jar.
You should concentrate instead on making sure the spin-off speed is as high as possible without causing the fluid in the jar to swirl around and splash up and out. All the speeds are controlled together with the rheostat you can set with a screwdriver. But the proportions of the speeds to one another are controlled by the taps on the wirewound resistor that you can move. I forget the exact details ... do you have the manual? It's all spelled out.
My machine was wired wrong when I got it, giving a spinoff speed that was slower than the drying speed. The spinoff was useless and the drying would wake the dead. The spinoff is supposed to be faster than the dry, and it works great with that fixed. I have been using it for 15 years now...? Probably ran it six times today.